World Policy Journal is proud to share our revived weekly podcast, World Policy On Air, featuring former Newsweek On Air host David Alpern and Eurasia Group President Ian Bremmer's latest commentary on global "Winners & Losers." Click here to subscribe on iTunes!
Africa Investigates is a new podcast from World Policy Institute in partnership with the African Network of Centers for Investigative Reporting and with funds from the Open Society Initiative for West Africa. Join Chris Roper as he showcases recent exposés into corruption across Africa. Click here to subscribe on iTunes!
(This article was originally published in The Mantle.)
By Corrie Hulse
The descriptions in the Amnesty report, as well as the US State Department’s 2010 Human Rights report on North Korea, are eerily reminiscent of historical documents detailing Nazi concentration camps. The stories of torture, starvation, forced labor, and execution of inmates are almost unreal. Unfortunately for the North Korean people, however, these stories are very, very real.
While there are many countries around the world that hold political prisoners (including the U.S.), North Korea is unique in a couple of ways. First, and most obviously, it is unique for the sheer number of political prisoners being held. As far as current statistics are concerned, the only country to come close in number is Myanmar, which is said to be holding approximately 60,000 political prisoners.
The second unique aspect of North Korea’s system is the idea of collective punishment. What this means is that one’s family and friends are equally as guilty of the crime an individual is accused of committing. In other words, if you are accused of criticizing the leadership of North Korea, not only will you be arrested and sent to a camp, the government will also arrest any family or friends it deems to be responsible for your offense. No trial will be held, and often the charges will be unknown to those arrested. Not even children are exempt from this system. It is said that entire families reside in many of the prison camps, often having committed no crime other than guilt by association.
To give you an idea of the sort of offenses, beyond guilt by association, that are likely to land you in a North Korean prison camp, here is the list published by Amnesty International:
- Criticizing the leadership
- Being seen as having failed in your duties as an official
- Contacting South Koreans in other countries
- Being a part of, or being believed to be a part of an anti-government group
- Listening to South Korean radio broadcasts
- Un-repatriated Prisoners of War from the original Korean War circa 1950
- Attempting to flee the country
- Being connected to NGOs or government/military orgs
- Holding religious texts
Those who have committed any of the above crimes, along with various other crimes not listed, are split into two different types of camps: total control zonesand revolutionary zones. Those sent to total control zones are considered enemies of the state, and will never leave the camp. They will either eventually die of starvation, or be executed. Those who are accused of lesser offenses are sent to the revolutionary zones for generally anywhere from three months to a decade. Though, again, many will still not survive their time in the camps. It has been estimated that at Yodok alone, 40 percent of the inmates died of malnutrition between 1991 and 2001.
What is further shocking about this story is that the world’s governments have known about it for decades. It is believed these camps have been in existence since the early 1950s. What Amnesty’s report does emphasize, and what the organization expresses as a major concern, is the recent growth of these camps. This is particularly worrisome in a time of political transition in the country, as Kim Jong-un prepares to take power. The fear is that 200,000 prisoners will soon be the small number of the past.
What has haunted me since this story broke, is that nobody seems to care. A report is released that 200,000 people are being held without trial, tortured and often killed in North Korea, and the world stands quiet. Where is the uproar? Where, aside from Amnesty who released the initial report, is the call for action? Why, other than the fact that it stands in China's shadow, is North Korea not being called out by the international community on a major level?
Corrie Hulse is a regular contributor to The Mantle
*For those who would like to gain more of a general understanding North Korea, I highly suggest you check out the Vice Guide to North Korea. A great documentary made a few years back, which gives a bit of insight into this very secretive country.